Water is not typically found in its pristine state, having been contaminated in its encounter with numerous substances and materials, including the atmosphere. The various types of high purity water are defined in terms of the specific impurities that are permitted to be present. The manufacture of such waters requires the removal of the objectionable components, or at least the reduction of these components to a tolerable level, followed by preserving the quality of the water thereafter. There are many types of high purity waters as defined by industry which include but are not limited to: Potable Water, Water for Initial Cleaning and Rinsing, Purified Water, Water for Injection and Ultra-High Purity.
Specified qualities of high purity water may require the removal of dissolved solids such as chlorides, calcium, sulfate, ammonia, heavy metals such as arsenic lead, fluorides, or oxidizable matter. Much of this is can be accomplished utilizing adsorptive technologies. Other requirements such as the removal of pyrogenic or microbial matter will require membrane filtration. Additionally, storage conditions are defined in many cases, requiring the additional of temperature to 80C and recirculation within the system at prescribed velocities.
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