Microelectronics

Graver Technlogies provides technology to trace contaminants in microelectronic devices such as transistors, capacitors, resistors, LEDs, pacemakers or flat screens.

Filtration Technology for the Microelectronic Industry

Microelectronic devices such as transistors, capacitors, resistors, LEDs, or flat screens touch every aspect of daily life. From cell phones and computers to pacemakers and hearing aids, to automobiles and jet fighters, the reliable performance of the component, particularly in critical applications, is extremely important. Trace contaminants can reduce yields or result in failure of the device, leading to higher manufacturing costs or poor product quality that could make the product a commercial failure. Sources of contaminants in the manufacturing environment stem from personnel, air, process chemicals, water, or equipment. Each must be managed to reduce the risk in order to optimize product quality and yield.

Solutions To Maximize Yield for Microelectronics

Highly efficient filtration of sub-micron particles is essential for maximizing yields by reducing defects throughout production processes in all microelectronics applications. Graver Technologies provides an extensive line of filtration technologies to protect these critical processes such as photolithography, CMP or wet-etch that are used to produce semiconductors, flat panel displays or data storage devices. By removing particles from upstream sources such as ultra-high purity water or electronic grade chemicals, we are able to reduce manufacturing downtime, help optimize operating and maintenance costs, extend chemical life and reduce the risk of defects which leads to maximized product yields and quality for efficient and economical device manufacturing. We manufacture using a broad range of materials including PTFE, PFA, polyethersulfone and polypropylene to provide excellent chemical and temperature resistance.

Frequently Asked Questions

How do you filter sediment and yeast from beer?

Post fermentation removal of sediment and yeast is typically done using high solids removal technology such as lenticulars, filter press or even microfiltration crossflow. Any remaining sediment and yeast can effectively be removed in the filtration step prior to the bottling process. In types of beer, haze often caused by protein complexes can develop and these can be addressed using a charged media such as glass.

How do you filter sediment out of wine?

Post fermentation removal of sediment and yeast is typically done using high solids removal technology such as lenticulars, filter press or even microfiltration crossflow.� Any remaining sediment and yeast can effectively be removed in the filtration step prior to the bottling process

Does Graver Technologies' solutions filter sediment from products such as tea?

Plant extracts often yield high levels of solids, some of which may be deformable as well as oils, both of which complicate filtration. Filtration is best accomplished using pleated multi-layered depth media such as QXL or glass media where oils or hazes formation may be an issue.

How can I clean my filter?

The cleaning method for the filter will depend upon the contaminant and the filter type. Chemicals used must be compatible with the filter and yet effective at removing or dissolving the contaminant. Recommendations are published in Technical Bulletin TB-008.

What is backwashing and do you recommend it?

It may be possible to clean and reuse many filters depending upon what plugged the filter and how plugged the filter is. The contaminant must be able to be removed either chemically or mechanically. This is more likely when the filter is not highly plugged. If the filter is planned to be reused, it is best to operate the filter until it is no more than 3 - 5X the clean differential pressure.

How do you filter beer before bottling?

The goal of filtration at bottling is typically to remove the risk of microbial contamination which can lead to shelf life issues. This is typically accomplished by using a 0.45 or 0.65 micron membrane that is rated for microbial removal. Note that not all membrane filters will have microbial claims. The membrane filter is generally protected by a� high efficiency 1 micron prefilter.

What filter should be used for a tank vent?

To protect the liquid contents from microbial or particulate contaminant, it is customary to install a vent filter on the tank. When liquid is added or removed from a tank, air must move in or out of the tank to fill the changing airspace above the liquid. A tank vent filter allows air to flow in both directions and prevents possible damage to the tank that could result if air is compressed during tank filling or a vacuum is created during tank emptying. Since liquid can "plug" the pores of a hydrophilic cartridge, it is critical that a hydrophobic membrane such as TefTEC which uses a PTFE membrane.

Can I reuse my filter?

It may be possible to clean and reuse many filters depending upon what plugged the filter and how plugged the filter is. The contaminant must be able to be removed either chemically or mechanically. This is more likely when the filter is not highly plugged. If the filter is planned to be reused, it is best to operate the filter until it is no more than 3 - 5X the clean differential pressure.

How do I determine how many filters I need for my process?

The key to optimizing any filtration system is to get the right balance between economy and performance. This balance is determined by a number of factors such as particle characteristics that include the nature of the particle and the volume of particles; fluid characteristics such as viscosity and temperature; and cartridge characteristics such as filter pore rating, efficiency and dirt holding capacity or throughput. There are several steps in determining the best recommendation: Minimum Core Requirement can be used as a baseline value to determine the minimum number of filters required to meet the flow demand; Flow per Ten Inch Equivalent (TIE) is the idealized maximum flow rate per ten inch cartridge based upon the type of filter being used in the application; Filter Flow Rate should be considered when the correct filter media (micron rating, membrane, pleated or depth) has been identified using the actual published filter flow rate data in Data sheets; Actual Testing conducted at a small scale yields the best values.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is industrial wastewater? How to treat industrial wastewater?

Industrial wastewaters is the aqueous byproduct of a manufacturing process and can contain both dissolved and undissolved contaminants, some of which can be harmful to human health or the environment. As the makeup of industrial wastewater can be vary widely depending on the manufacturing process, treatment will also vary greatly, requiring the use of microfiltration, ultrafiltration or even reverse osmosis, as well as potentially absorbent technologies to treat heavy metals and PFAS.

Is nitric acid a strong acid?

Nitric acid is the inorganic compound with the formula HNO3 and is considered to be a strong, highly corrosive acid.

Can HEPA Filters be washed and reused?

Generally, HEPA filters are not intended to be washed and reused.

What is nitric acid? What is it used for?

Nitric acid is the inorganic compound with the formula HNO3 and is considered to be a strong, highly corrosive acid. It has broad application in industrial manufacturing from fertilizers to high purity uses as an etchant in semiconductor production.

How can I improve surface finish in machining?

A critical aspect of the machining process is the oil utilized for lubricating and cooling. Filtration can minimize the build up of particles in the fluid and as well as those that accumulate on tooling, thus decreasing machine maintenance and reworks.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Chemical Mechanical Planarization?

CMP is a process used for smoothing the surfaces of semiconductor wafers using a combination of chemical and mechanical forces. The process uses chemical etching and abrasive polishing to achieve a flat surface.

How is a microprocessor different from an integrated circuit?

A microprocessor is an integrated circuit, but not all integrated circuits are microprocessors. This acts as the brains, being able to process logical and arithmetic instructions that are programmed into it.

What is an integrated circuit?

This broad category includes devices such as transistors, capacitors, resistors, diodes, LED and photocells. The different types of devices can be integrated together to form integrated circuits, or VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) devices such as microprocessors and random access memory (RAM).

Why are metals not used on transistors and integrated circuits?

Copper and other metals are used as conductors in printed circuit boards. But for microelectronic devices it is difficult to properly control the electric signal and thus semiconductor material such as silicon is used which also insulates better.

What is a complex integrated circuit?

This is essentially the same as a microprocessor, an integrated circuit that behaves as the brain of the computer. Also referred to as the central processing unit, or CPU.

What are polishers for silicon wafers?

Polishing of wafers is typically accomplished using a process called Chemical Mechanical Planarization, which uses a combination of chemical etching and abrasive polishing to achieve a flat surface.

What is a pre reverse osmosis filters and why is it necessary?

In order to maximize the life of reverse osmosis membranes, it is highly recommended to use a filter in front of the membrane with the goals of reducing the risk of fouling the membrane. Membrane fouling is the main cause of permeate flux decline and loss of product quality in reverse osmosis systems. Silt Density Index or SDI (ASTM standard test method D 4189-82), is the empirical test developed for measuring the potential rate of fouling of RO membranes

What is the difference between MOCVD and CVD? What does MOCVD stand for?

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a vacuum deposition method generally used for depositing crystalline micro/nano thin films and structures on wafers using materials such as silicon, carbon, fluorocarbons, tungsten and titanium nitride. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), a variant of CVD, is most commonly used for the production of red, blue, green and white LEDs

Frequently Asked Questions

Does reverse osmosis remove arsenic, lead or uranium?

Reverse Osmosis (RO) membranes work by concentrating contaminants (reject water) and excluding them from the permeate or system water.

Do refrigerator water filters remove arsenic?

Always check labeling for certification of contaminant removal from filter products.

Does boiling water remove heavy metals such as lead?

Boiling water can actually concentrate contaminants as the water vapor is "boiled off".

Does boiling water remove PFAS from water?

No PFAS can not be removed with heating or boiling.

How to remove heavy metals from water and wastewater?

Many MetSorb(R) adsorbents will remove heavy metals from water and wastewater. Please view our product pages for more information.

How can one remove heavy metals from aquarium water?

Many MetSorb(R) adsorbents will remove heavy metals from water. Consult a water treatment specialist for more information.

How can I remove lead from water?

Many MetSorb(R) adsorbents will remove lead and other heavy metals from water. Please view our product pages for more information.

How can PFAS be removed from water?

PFAS can be removed with adsorbents and ion exchange resins like MetSorb(R) PFX.

How can I test for heavy metals like lead in water at home?

The USEPA website contains a lot of useful information to help homeowners and the general public understand water quality https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2015-11/documents/2005_09_14_faq_fs_homewatertesting.pdf

How much uranium is safe in drinking water?

The USEPA has issued and regularly reviews/updates the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR) https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/national-primary-drinking-water-regulations

Frequently Asked Questions

Can you filter natural gas?

Natural gas is filtered at multiple stages in the process of manufacturing and transport to remove particles, hydrocarbons, water vapor and acid gas.

Does a HEPA filter remove odor?

HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filters are designed to remove particulate matter and do not remove odors, chemicals, gasses or VOCs

How to become a distributor?

Contact the Regional Sales Manager responsible for your specific geography, which can be found on the website in the "Where To Buy" link, or email your request to [email protected]

How do you filter biogas?

Biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of organic waste and converted into biomethane that can be used to replace fossil fuels. Much like natural gas, it requires filtration to remove particles and water vapor.

What do compressed natural gas filters protect against?

Natural gas is filtered at multiple stages in the process of manufacturing and transport to remove particles, hydrocarbons, water vapor and acid gas. These contaminants contribute to excessive wear, loss of efficiency and decrease the risk of downtime of equipment.

Can HEPA Filters be washed and reused?

Generally, HEPA filters are not intended to be washed and reused.

How do you clean OEM filters?

Most filters are synthetic materials and thus are not designed to be cleaned and reused. Filters are generally intended to be used until plugged, which can be defined by loss of flow or a terminal pressure drop increase.

What's in a HEPA filter?

HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filters are made by using microfiber media typically polypropylene or fiberglass fibers which are capable of removing particles between 0.3 and 10 microns (µm)

Do air filtration systems work?

The filtration of air and compressed gasses will remove particles including microbial contamination that can result in excess wear and damage to equipment or harmful health effects. The filter must be chosen to meet the required performance specification and regularly maintained in order to meet those performance expectations.

What's the lifetime of a compressed air & gas filter, a biogas filter, and a natural gas filter?

The life of any filter is very dependent upon the process and product being filtered. Solids levels can vary significantly in different processes or even within the same process over time, thus life should be determined by identifying parameters such as minimum flow or maximum differential pressure.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can HEPA Filters be washed and reused?

Generally, HEPA filters are not intended to be washed and reused.

Does Graver provide high purity water filters to remove chlorine and fluoride?

Microfiltration technology is not effective in removing chlorine and fluorides in water. These are typically removed through use of carbon based adsorbent technology.

What are filters for medical devices?

Medical devices can use a wide range of filter technologies. Graver focuses specifically upon use of PLEKX® technology for the removal and/or reduction of multiple odor, gas, fume and chemical contaminants in both doctors' offices and surgical suites.

What performance and regulatory demands do Graver's products for healthcare application meet?

Some of our the standard Certifications and Compliance Standards: ASME Code, Section XI, Division I Compliance, PED 97/23/EC Compliance, ISO 9001:2015 Certification, NSF 61 Certification, FDA Title 21 Compliance, USP Class VI Compliance, EU 1935 OML Compliance

How to become a distributor?

Contact the Regional Sales Manager responsible for your specific geography, which can be found on the website in the "Where To Buy" link, or email your request to [email protected]

What is considered high purity water?

Ultrapure water (UPW), high-purity water (HPW) is water that has been purified to stringent specifications which may include microbial, particulate, and metal contaminants. The standards of water quality will vary significantly by application and industry. For healthcare applications, the USP (United States Pharmacopeia) has 8 different classifications, with the common classification for processing high purity water being Water for Injection (WFI) and Purified Water.

Which filter is most commonly used in fermentation?

Several essential applications for filters. Tank vent or fermentation feed air filters, the choice of which depends upon the specific method being used in the fermentation process, ensure that particles and microbes do not enter the process through air sources. These filters should utilize a hydrophobic membrane such as PTFE and have claims for sterility. A second area is to ensure that all fluids in the process are microbial-free, so filtration using a 0.2 micron hydrophilic membrane filter that is rated as sterilizing grade is commonly used. This would apply to water, nutrient broths or any liquid additive essential to the process.

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